Executive vice president and general manager Bob Murray will act as the team's interim head coach for the remainder of the season.
Anaheim has lost its last seven games while being outscored 37-8. The Ducks are 2-15-4 in the past 21 games, which included a franchise-worst 12-game losing streak.
"We thank Randy for everything he has done for the organization," Murray said. "Leading the team to a Stanley Cup and three conference final appearances, he has accomplished so much in Anaheim. Difficult decisions need to be made when times are tough, and our play has clearly been unacceptable. We have a tradition of success in Anaheim and we need to get back to that."
Carlyle has the most wins in Ducks history (384-256-96), and compiled a 111-74-35 record in his second stint coaching the team after being hired June 14, 2016, to replace Bruce Boudreau. He guided the Ducks to a Stanley Cup title in 2007 during his first stint (2005-11) with the franchise.
Anaheim is last in the Western Conference and trails the St. Louis Blues by eight points for the second wild-card spot.
"What bothered me the most was the lack of emotion, the lack of push back," Murray said about the decision to fire Carlyle. "This team has always been a pride team, and that went away. Nothing works if you lack hard work and emotion, and it wasn't there."
Carlyle is the fifth NHL coach fired in the 2018-19 campaign, joining the Philadelphia Flyers' Dave Hakstol, the Edmonton Oilers' Todd McLellan, the Los Angeles Kings' John Stevens and the Chicago Blackhawks' Joel Quenneville.