Wilbekin went to the line 16 times and scored two field goals in the Gators' (20-2, 9-0 SEC) 14th consecutive win.
Florida trailed 28-25 at halftime but took control in the second half, outscoring Missouri (16-6, 4-5) 43-30.
Michael Frazier scored 12 of his 14 points in the second half and freshman Chris Walker scored four points and grabbed two rebounds in seven minutes. Walker made his college debut Tuesday after sitting out the first 21 games due to a suspension and academic woes.
Missouri had 15 points and six assists from Jabari Brown and 14 from backcourt mate Jordan Clarkson. The Tigers lost their second consecutive game.