Michigan began the evening tied for the lead with Indiana in the Big Ten Conference and protected its share of the top of spot by limiting Northwestern to 21 first-half points.
Burke scored 18 points in pushing the Wolverines to their 20th win of the season. Michigan hit 52 percent of its field goal attempts and went on runs of nine and eight points in the opening 20 minutes.
Glenn Robinson III added 13 points and Nik Stauskas had 11. Mitch McGary came off the bench to grab 14 rebounds.
Michigan (20-1, 7-1 Big Ten) has won four in a row since experiencing its lone loss of the season to Ohio State Jan. 13 and will travel to Indiana for one of college basketball's key games of the year Saturday.
Alex Olah scored 10 points and was the only player in double figures for Northwestern (12-10, 3-6).