Lebedev, 70, arrived in Ghana Sept. 14 for a four-day visit.
He was on his way to the capital when a truck slammed into his car, RIA Novosti said.
Lebedev was airlifted to the hospital in Accra and was in intensive care, officials said.
Details about his injuries were not released, but Ghanian officials said in a statement he is in stable condition.
One of Lebedev's security guards was also hospitalized.