French Tennis Federation president Bernard Giudicelli announced the decision on a Facebook live broadcast Tuesday.
"I decided not to give Maria Sharapova a wild card," Giudicelli said. "I'm very sorry for Maria, very sorry for her fans. They might be disappointed, she might be very disappointed. But it's my responsibility, it's my mission to protect the game and protect the high standards of the game."
Sharapova, 30, currently ranks 211th in the WTA Singles Rankings and will not be eligible to make the qualifying field at Roland Garros Stadium in Paris.
The Russian won at Roland Garros in 2012 and 2014. Sharapova, a five-time Grand Slam tournament winner and former World No. 1, has played in three tournaments via wild-card berths since returning from suspension.
The French Open begins May 28.