Robinson's agents at Element Sports Groupp announced the move Tuesday.
The fifth-year tailback rushed for 144 yards on 41 carries last season for the Jaguars. He was taken in the fifth round of the 2013 NFL Draft and spent the first four years of his career with the Florida franchise.
Robinson's best year came in 2014, when he piled up 706 yards from scrimmage and four touchdowns.
Robinson is as versatile as it gets at the position, He was the 2010 Big Ten Most Valuable Player while playing quarterback at the University of Michigan. That season he completed 62.5 percent of his passes for 2,570 yards, 18 touchdowns and 11 interceptions. He also ran for 1,702 yards and 14 scores that year for the Wolverines.
Robinson has averaged 4.0 yards per carry during his NFL career. He has 13 starts in that timeframe. Of the current Jets backups, only Bilal Powell has more career starts (20) than Robinson.
The Jets had the No. 12 rushing offense in the NFL last season and had a top-10 ranked rushing offense from 2013 through 2015.