Brantley, a two-time American League All-Star, missed 50 games over the final two months of the regular season due to the injury.
Brantley was active for the AL Division Series against the New York Yankees but was just 1-for-11.
The surgery was performed Wednesday in Charlotte, N.C., and was designed to strengthen damaged ligaments in Brantley's right ankle.
Complicating matters is the fact that the Indians are facing a decision on whether to pick up Brantley's $12 million option for next season or pay him a $1 million buyout. The team must decide within 72 hours after the conclusion of the final game of the World Series.
Brantley batted .299 with eight homers and 52 RBIs in 90 games this season.
This was the second consecutive injury interrupted season for the 30-year-old Brantley. He played in just 11 games in 2016 due to two surgeries on his right shoulder.