The 31-year-old Price hasn't pitched this season because of a strained left elbow. The five-time All-Star was returned from his injury rehab assignment with Triple-A Pawtucket for his start at Guaranteed Rate Field in Chicago.
Price, who began the season on the disabled list , made two rehab starts with Pawtucket, allowing six earned runs on 12 hits with eight strikeouts and two walks in 5 2/3 innings.
In his debut season with Boston in 2016, Price led the majors in starts (35) and innings pitched (230), going 17-9 with a 3.99 ERA.
The 2012 American League Cy Young Award winner also set a single-season Red Sox record for most strikeouts by a left-handed pitcher (228), becoming the club's first pitcher to lead the majors in innings since Roger Clemens did so in 1991.
Price, selected first overall by Tampa Bay in the 2007 draft, is 121-65 (.651) with a 3.21 ERA in 253 major league appearances (248 starts) between the Rays (2008-14), Detroit Tigers (2014-15), Toronto Blue Jays (2015), and Red Sox (2016).
To make room on the 25-man roster, right-hander Brandon Workman was optioned to Pawtucket following Sunday's game against the Seattle Mariners.
Workman, 28, appeared in one game with Boston this season, pitching three scoreless innings against the Baltimore Orioles on May 4, his first big-league appearance since 2014.
In eight games with the Pawtucket. Workman has a 1.98 ERA, holding opponents to a .149 batting average. He spent the 2016 season on the disabled list recovering from Tommy John surgery in June 2015.