Judge James Brandlin said that the 24-year-old singer must submit to drug testing and take any medication his doctor prescribes.
The sentencing followed Brown's brief stint in rehab after he allegedly assaulted someone outside a Washington, D.C. hotel last month.
According to a report filed by Brown's probation officer, the singer was booted from his previous treatment facility for throwing a rock at his mother's car window during a family session.
"Mr. Brown preceded to walk outside and pick up a rock and threw it through his mother's car window and it shattered," the report read. "There is much concern with the probationer's new arrest and his violent outburst that resulted in his discharge from a treatment facility."
Brown is still on probation for his 2009 beating of then-girlfriend Rihanna. He voluntarily entered rehab the day after he was arrested for the D.C. altercation.
"His goal is to gain focus and insight into his past and recent behavior, enabling him to continue the pursuit of his life and his career from a healthier vantage point," his rep said of Brown's decision to seek treatment.