Sources told the NFL Network that Robinson signed a one-year contract with the club. Financial terms of the deal weren't disclosed.
The Browns also waived wide receiver Daniel Williams.
Robinson originally joined the Browns prior to last season on a vet-minimum deal for one year. He began the season as a backup, but started Cleveland's final eight games of the 2018-19 campaign as Baker Mayfield's left tackle.
Cleveland allowed only five sacks in the second half of the season and Mayfield went on to set an NFL rookie record with 27 touchdown passes. Starting running back Nick Chubb also set a Browns rookie record with 996 rushing yards.
The then-St. Louis Rams selected Robinson with the second-overall pick in the 2014 NFL Draft. The Rams traded him to the Detroit Lions after three seasons with the franchise. He played in nine games with the Lions in 2017 before ending the season on injured reserve.
Robinson has started 56 of his 68 career NFL games with the Lions, Rams and Browns.
Williams spent the final four weeks of the season on the Browns' practice squad. He originally signed with the New York Jets in 2017 as an undrafted free agent out of Jackson State.