The Vikings reached the playoffs last season for the first time in three years as Peterson returned to the field following his 2014 suspension.
"We are going to have a good chance to win it this year -- win everything," Peterson told Peter King of TheMMQB.com. "Sit back and watch. Sit back and watch. You can be like, 'I thought you guys were at least a couple of years away.' Nope. You sit back and watch, this year."
Peterson won the NFL rushing title last season with 1,485 yards for the third time of his career.
The 31-year-old Peterson has 11,675 yards in his career and starts this season 6,681 yards behind Emmitt Smith's all-time rushing record of 18,355 yards.
"I don't spend too much time thinking about (winning another rushing title)," Peterson said. "But it's a seed planted in my brain, and it's sticking there. Everything in me is championship, championship and then breaking records. It's a part of me. I am pushing myself to the max to win a Super Bowl, and then to break Emmitt's (all-time rushing) record and Eric Dickerson's (1984 single-season rushing) record. It is my everyday life, what I think of every day. Mostly it's that Super Bowl. Then the whole world will remember you."
Dickerson set the single-season rushing record with 2,105 yards for the Los Angeles Rams in 1984. Peterson challenged the record in 2012 when he won the second of his three rushing titles and finished with 2,097 yards.
Peterson has previously said he could play 10 more seasons.
"Once I get to 38, I don't think I'll have the same love of the game," Peterson told TheMMQB.com. "Sometimes I get tired of training camp. I think I can endure five more (camps), but after that, I don't know.
"Not to be cocky or anything, but I know, at 31, my end is going to be better than my beginning. One thing I know, and will remain true: These young guys will never outwork me. I put my body through the grind. ... I don't get into the 30-year-old running-back thing, that you're done at 30. I am getting stronger with age."