Kershaw has been on the disabled list since July 24 after exiting with a lower back strain the previous day against the Atlanta Braves.
The three-time Cy Young Award winner recorded eight strikeouts while allowing one run on two hits in five innings during a rehab start for Triple-A Oklahoma City on Saturday.
"Good, it was fun to get back out there," Kershaw said, per ESPN. "Fun to pitch again. It's been a long time.
"So I was glad to get back out there and everything felt healthy and good to go, so I'm excited about the next one."
Kershaw sports a 15-2 mark with a 2.04 ERA in 21 starts this season.
Los Angeles faces a 17-game stretch with no days off, and Roberts saying that a six-man rotation is a "very good possibility."
Dodgers All-Star left-hander Alex Wood (shoulder joint inflammation) is also slated to come off the disabled list in San Diego.