The Steelers announced Wheaton as out in Saturday's official injury report because of a shoulder injury.
The 25-year-old Wheaton caught 44 passes for 749 yards and five touchdowns in 16 games last season.
Wheaton, who was drafted by the Steelers in the third round in 2013, said earlier in the week that he intended to play after missing significant time in the preseason because of various injuries.
The Steelers also ruled out fullback Roosevelt Nix (back), offensive lineman Cody Wallace (knee) and cornerback Senquez Golson (foot).
The Redskins listed running back Matt Jones (shoulder), wide receiver Josh Doctson (Achilles), defensive end Kendall Reyes (groin), guard Spencer Long (ankle), tackle Ty Nsekhe (illness) and nose tackle Kedric Gholston (back) as questionable.
All but Gholston fully participated in practice Saturday.