During the surgery, Dayton will have vertebrae that have shifted out of position fused together, Minnesota Public Radio reported.
Dr. Christopher DeWald said the procedure is largely successful.
"As long as everything goes well, the level that he's having operated on will not be a problem for him for the rest of his life. And he'll notice a difference almost immediately," DeWald said. "Sometimes patients in the recovery room will say that their legs feel less heavy, that they can notice a difference. So it's pretty dramatic, and they feel much better."
Dayton's office said the governor is expected to be in the hospital until Monday and will then head home to recuperate.