Dylan was honored for his "profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power," the Pulitzer Prize Board said in announcing the award in New York.
"The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" by Junot Diaz won the award for fiction, while "August: Osage County" by Tracy Letts garnered the prize for drama.
"What Hath God Wrought" by Daniel Walker Howe won the award for history and "Eden's Outcasts" by John Matteson took the prize for biography.
"Time and Materials" by Robert Hass and "Failure" by Philip Schultz both earned Pulitzers for poetry.
"The Years of Extermination" by Saul Friedlander picked up the award for general nonfiction and "The Little Match Girl Passion" by David Lang won the prize for music.