The flight crew reported smoke in the rear of the cabin, made an emergency landing at Laredo International Airport, then exited the plane using slides, CNN reported Wednesday.
"We are continuing to gather data regarding this event. It's too early to tell what may have gone wrong," said Boeing spokeswoman Lori Gunter.
Gunter said all 787 Dreamliner test flights had been canceled "until we understand the event."
The company has over 850 orders for the 787 Dreamliner, which is still in the testing stage nearly three years beyond its original delivery date.
The first test flight of the 787 occurred in December 2009. The large, twin-engine jet is being billed as the next generation fuel-efficient aircraft.
Boeing said recently it would deliver the first 787s in the first quarter of 2011.