Surgeons were called in to save Miller's injured leg, league and team sources told ESPN's Chris Mortensen on Monday.
According to the ESPN report, Miller's dislocated knee is considered "more significant" than a regular dislocation.
The surgery was performed in New Orleans after the Bears' 20-12 loss to the Saints to repair a damaged artery in Miller's leg, according to the ESPN report.
The 33-year-old Miller was carted off the field after dislocating his knee in the third quarter against the Saints. He was taken from the Mercedes-Benz Superdome to a local hospital.
Miller appeared to have caught a 25-yard touchdown pass from quarterback Mitchell Trubisky, but he landed awkwardly on his left leg. After an official review, the scoring catch was reversed because the officials ruled Miller did not maintain control throughout the catch.
"Our thoughts and prayers are with him," Bears coach John Fox said of Miller after Sunday's game.
The 6-foot-5, 245-pound Miller has 20 receptions for 236 yards and two touchdowns in eight games this season.