Doughty's winner was a slapshot that got past New Jersey goaltender Martin Brodeur, sending the Kings to their sixth straight win.
Wayne Simmonds had tied the score for Los Angeles a little over a minute earlier, firing in a backhand shot with 1:46 remaining.
Los Angeles also got a goal by Michael Handzus near the end of the second period.
The Devils had built a 2-0 lead on goals by David Johnny Oduya in the first period and Travis Zajac in the second.
The Kings' Johathan Quick turned in 26 saves and Brodeur had 19.