Brent the chimp took first place in the contest, which picked its winner through judging by famed conservationist Goodall and more than 27,000 votes on the Humane Society's website.
The Humane Society said Brent's painting was unique in that he used only his tongue as an implement.
The group said each of the six sanctuaries housing participating chimps will receive $500, while Brent's home, Chimp Haven of Keithville, will get a $10,000 grand prize.
Save the Chimps of Fort Pierce, Fla., home of second place winner Cheetah, will receive $5,000 and Center for Great Apes in Wauchula, Fla., home of third place painter Ripley, will get $3,500.
"All of the art was beautiful and unique, just like chimpanzees! It was difficult to choose. It's so important that the public support all of these sanctuaries in their mission to provide exceptional care to chimpanzees, and other primates, who have suffered through so much," Goodall said.