Sarah Evans Barker (born 1943) is a United States federal judge.
Born in Mishawaka, Indiana, Barker received a B.S. from Indiana University in 1965 and a J.D. from American University, Washington College of Law in 1969. She was a legislative assistant for U.S. Representative Gilbert Gude in 1969 and for U.S. Senator Charles H. Percy from 1969 to 1971. She was a Special counsel to the U.S. Senate Government Operations Committee, permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Washington, D.C. from 1971 to 1972. She was a Director of research and director of scheduling and advance to Senator Percy's re-election campaign in 1972. She then served as an assistant U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of Indiana from 1972–1976, and as a first assistant U.S. Attorney from 1976 to 1977. She was in private practice in Indianapolis, Indiana from 1977 to 1981. She was the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana from 1981 to 1984.
On February 14, 1984, Barker was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana vacated by Cale J. Holder. Barker was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 13, 1984, and received her commission the following day. She served as chief judge from 1994 to 2000.