Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: 秦始皇; pinyin: Qín Shǐhuáng; Wade-Giles: Ch'in Shih-huang) (259 BCE – 210 BCE), personal name Ying Zheng (Chinese: 嬴政; pinyin: Yíng Zhèng), was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 246 BCE to 221 BCE during the Warring States Period. He became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BCE. He ruled until his death in 210 BCE at the age of 50.
Qin Shi Huangdi remains a controversial figure in Chinese history. After unifying China, he and his chief adviser Li Si passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He undertook gigantic projects, including the first version of the Great Wall of China, the now famous city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army, and a massive national road system, all at the expense of many lives. To ensure stability, Qin Shi Huang outlawed Confucianism and buried many scholars alive. All books other than those officially decreed were banned and burned in what is known as the great Confucian purge. Despite the tyranny of his autocratic rule, Qin Shi Huang is regarded as a pivotal figure.
After conquering the independent Chinese state in 221 BCE, he ruled as king over all of established China. He created a new title, calling himself the First Emperor (Chinese: 始皇帝; pinyin: Shǐ Huáng Dì; Wade-Giles: Shih Huang-Ti), shortened as (皇帝).