James M. Roche (December 16, 1906 - June 6, 2004) was an American statistician who served as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chairman of the Board at General Motors Corporation. He is credited for promoting racial equality within General Motors (GM).
Roche was born in Elgin, Illinois. He married Louise McMillan in 1929 and eventually had a daughter and two sons. Roche never went to college because of his father's early death. He was one of the few American industrialists lacking a college education.
He joined GM as a statistician in 1927 in the Chicago sales and service branch and slowly worked his way up through the ranks, becoming president of the corporation in 1965. Most of his career was spent at the Cadillac Division, becoming head of the division in 1957. Roche became vice-president of General Motors in 1957, and executive vice-president and board member in 1962.