Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, marqués de Valleheroso y conde de Jerena (sometimes spelled Bucareli y Urzúa) (January 21, 1717, Seville, Spain – April 9, 1779, Mexico City) was a Spanish military officer, governor of Cuba, and viceroy of New Spain (from September 23, 1771 to April 9, 1779).
Bucareli y Ursúa was born in Seville of a noble family. There is no evidence that he ever married. He entered an infantry regiment as a cadet at the age of 11, and ascended in rank to captain general. He distinguished himself in the Italian campaigns, and because of this was made governor of Cuba. There he worked to regularize the militia. He also constructed the forts of Atarés and El Morro.
He was governor of Cuba when he was named viceroy of New Spain. He sailed from Havana on August 14, 1771 and arrived at Veracruz on August 23. He took command of the colony at San Cristóbal Ecatepec on September 22, and made his formal entry into Mexico City on September 23, 1771. As Spain was at peace, he immediately reduced the size of the army to save costs. Before the reduction, the army consisted of 10,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry, not including the regiment La Corona, the urban guard in Mexico City, Puebla and Veracruz, and the companies of Alvarado and Tlacotalpan. With the reduced army, he took special care to reinforce the presidios in the north, to fight the Apaches and Jumiles, who were continuing devastating incursions into Coahuila. The Indians taken prisoner were deported to Cuba, together with their families.