Her plan details changes to the look most recently given the garden by designer Rachel Lambert "Bunny" Mellon during the Kennedy administration in 1962.
While the old design had "an elegant symmetry," it's in need of updating after decades of use, the White House said.
The first lady's plan is to restore the 1962 blueprint and improve infrastructure for the future. It will also enhance the garden for events by adding better accessibility and support for broadcasting.
The famous Rose Garden is located adjacent to the Oval Office and the West Wing and frequently hosts gatherings and televised speeches or news conferences with world leaders.
"The very act of planting a garden involves hard work and hope in the possibility of a bright future," Melania Trump said in a statement. "Preserving the history and beauty of the White House and its grounds is a testament to our nation's commitment to the care of this landscape and our dedication to American ideals, safeguarding them for our children and their children for generations to come."
The National Park Service, which has cared for the White House grounds since 1933, supports the project with private donations.
President Woodrow Wilson's first wife, Ellen Wilson, initially planted a rose garden in 1913 that was known as the "West Garden." She died in 1914 and his second wife, Edith, maintained the garden.
Melania Trump has already made changes to several locations at the White House, including the bowling alley, the Red Room, the Blue Room, the Green Room and the Diplomatic Reception Room.