It's the second time the president has asked the high court to intervene in a case involving his financial information. In November, he asked for the court to block a Manhattan grand jury subpoena seeking eight years of his New York state tax returns.
The new petition came less than two weeks after the Supreme Court issued a temporary stay blocking a subpoena from the House Committee on Oversight and Reform seeking personal and business tax records from Trump's accounting firm, Mazars USA LLP.
On Nov. 13, the full District of Columbia U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against Trump, saying Mazars must comply with the subpoena.
In the petition to the high court Wednesday, Trump's lawyers warned about setting a precedent by allowing the handover of documents.
"Under the D.C. Circuit's decision, Congress can subpoena any private records it wishes from the president on the mere assertion that it is considering legislation that might require presidents to disclose that same information," the petition said.
If the Supreme Court agrees to hear the case, it could be combined with the one involving Manhattan District Attorney Cy Vance. Arguments would likely be scheduled to take place in April.
If the court declines the cases, Mazars USA would be required to hand over the requested documents.
The Democrat-led House Committee on Oversight and Reform subpoenaed Mazars USA LLP for the records in April, after Trump's longtime personal lawyer Michael Cohen testified that the president had manipulated the value of his assets for improper purposes.