The final vote was split along party lines 218-185 with Rep. Justin Amash, I-Mich., voting with Democrats to reject the resolution against Schiff, the chairman of the House intelligence committee.
The resolution cited a Sept. 26 hearing in which Schiff paraphrased a rough transcript of a July phone call between Trump and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky at the center of the probe.
"It will be said of House Republicans, when they found they lacked the courage to confront the most dangerous and unethical president in American history, they consoled themselves by attacking those who did," Schiff wrote on Twitter after the vote.
Trump has repeatedly described the call in which he encouraged Zelensky to investigate former Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter Biden and admonished Schiff for embellishing the transcript in his reading, which Schiff later said were intended as parody.
During a cabinet meeting on Monday, Trump called Schiff a "crooked politician" and suggested without evidence that he may have been the whistleblower who came forward with information about the phone call.
Trump also called on Republicans to remain unified and "get tougher and fight" against the impeachment inquiry, while calling Democrats "vicious."