Ginsburg, 86, received a pulmonary lobectomy on her left lung at New York City's Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Two malignant nodules were successfully removed, surgeon Dr. Valerie Rusch said.
There is no "no evidence of any remaining disease" and no further treatment is expected, the high court said in a statement.
The nodules in Ginsburg's left lung were discovered during tests she received after she broke several ribs in a fall last month.
Ginsburg is said to be "resting comfortably" and will remain at the hospital for several days.