The Senate last week voted 56-41 to rebuke Mohammed, who the CIA believes was involved in the October killing of the Washington Post columnist at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.
The vote was seen as mostly symbolic, since President Donald Trump has declined to blame the prince or to criticize Saudi Arabia in Khashoggi's death. The Republican-led House has also refused to take up the measure.
An official at the Saudi ministry of foreign affairs said Riyadh "rejects" the Senate resolution and calls the move a "blatant" interference in Saudi internal affairs and undermines "the kingdom's regional and international role," government-run SANA reported Monday.
"The kingdom categorically rejects any interference in its internal affairs, any and all accusations, in any manner, that disrespect its leadership, represented by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosque and the Crown Prince, and any attempts to undermine its sovereignty or diminish its stature," the statement said.
The Saudi government said it's played a prominent role in combating terrorism, particularly efforts led by the Islamic State and al-Qaida around the world.
"The kingdom is keen on preserving its relations with the United States of America, and will continue to work toward improving these ties in all areas," the foreign ministry official said. "The kingdom appreciates the prudent position taken by the United States government and its institutions regarding the recent developments, as it realizes that this position by the U.S. Senate sends the wrong messages to all those who want to cause a rift in Saudi-U.S. relationship."
The Senate resolution also called for an end to U.S. aid in Yemen. Last week, the Yemeni government and Houthi rebels reached a cease-fire in the port city of Hudaydah, a key port city through which relief supplies are distributed countrywide.