In a brief speech before the guests dug into tortilla Espanola, an egg and potato dish, and chorizo or Spanish sausage, Biden acknowledged the party was three days early on "Dos de Mayo." He said the day "exemplifies the spirit that still unites our two countries."
Cinco de Mayo is more widely celebrated among Mexican-Americans than it is in Mexico. It is held on the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla, when Mexico defeated a French army in 1862, and also honors the U.S. Civil War.
"Our two great countries are tied together," Biden said. "We share a bond that's a lot deeper than our long border."
The guests included two Hispanic Cabinet members, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis and Interior Secretary Ken Salazar, the Mexican ambassador to Washington and prominent Mexican-Americans, including Jorge Ramos and Maria Salina of Univision.
The Bidens have previously hosted receptions during Hispanic Heritage Month in their home at the Naval Observatory. The breakfast was their first Cinco de Mayo event.