July 28 (UPI) -- On this date in history:
In 1868, the ratified 14th Amendment was adopted into the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing citizenship and all its privileges to African Americans.
In 1917, thousands of Black Americans marched down New York City's Fifth Avenue as part of the so-called Silent Parade to protest racial violence.
In 1945, the United States approved the charter establishing the United Nations.
In 1945, a military B-25 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building in New York City, killing 14 people and setting the building ablaze.
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced he was dispatching 50,000 more U.S. troops to South Vietnam almost immediately, doubling monthly draft calls.
In 1976, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck the Tangshan, China, area, killing more than 240,000 people. It was among the deadliest quakes in recorded history.
In 1984, U.S. President Ronald Reagan opened the Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles. A Soviet-led bloc of 15 nations, as well as Iran, Libya, Albania and Bolivia, boycotted the Games.
In 1990, the collision of a freighter and two barges spilled 500,000 gallons of oil in the Houston Ship Channel near Galveston, Texas.
In 2003, J.P. Morgan Chase and Citigroup, the two largest U.S. banks, agreed to pay nearly $300 million in fines and penalties to settle charges they had aided Enron in deceiving investors.
In 2010, a plane flying in intense fog and rain to Islamabad crashed in the Himalayan foothills near its destination, killing all 152 people aboard.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first woman to accept a presidential nomination from a major U.S. political party. She edged out fellow Democratic contender Bernie Sanders, but lost the general election to Republican Donald Trump.
In 2019, 16-year-old Kyle "Bugha" Giersdorf became the first Fortnite World Cup champion. His $3 million cash prize was the largest payout ever for a single player in an esports tournament.
In 2020, the MLB postponed the Miami Marlins' next six games because of the team's outbreak of COVID-19 virus.