Oct. 27 (UPI) -- On this date in history:
In 1682, the city of Philadelphia was founded by William Penn to serve as the capital of the Pennsylvania Colony.
In 1787, a New York newspaper published the first of 77 essays explaining the new Constitution and urging its ratification. The essays were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay (and later combined as "The Federalist Papers)."
In 1795, a treaty with Spain settled Florida's northern boundary and gave navigation rights on the Mississippi River to the United States.
In 1904, the first rapid transit subway system in America opened in New York City.
In 1936, Wallis Simpson, American friend of King Edward VIII, obtained a swift divorce in the small, dingy Ipswich Court.
In 1946, the travel show Geographically Speaking, sponsored by Bristol-Myers, became the first television program with a commercial sponsor.
In 1954, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., commander of the 332nd Fighter Group, the Tuskegee Airmen, becomes the first African American promoted to the rank of general in the United States Air Force.
In 1954, Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio divorced. Among the issues that ended their much-publicized marriage was a blowup over her famous scene in The Seven-Year Itch in which a blast of air lifts her skirt. The marriage lasted nine months.
In 1962, Major Rudolf Anderson, a U-2 pilot in the United States Air Force, is shot down during a reconnaissance mission over Cuba. His death makes him the only direct casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In 1998, Hurricane Mitch, one of the strongest recorded Atlantic storms, began a four-day siege of Central America, causing at least 10,000 deaths.
In 2004, the Boston Red Sox won the World Series for the first time in 86 years.
In 2013, Lou Reed, iconoclastic main singer of the New York rock band Velvet Underground, died at the age of 71. He was widely regarded as an influential musician in pop music.
In 2017, the Catalan Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of independence from Spain. In reaction, the Spanish government dissolved Catalonia's legislative body.
In 2019, Cherokee actor, activist and Vietnam veteran Wes Studi became the first Native American actor to be presented with an Oscar -- an honorary lifetime achievement award.