July 28 (UPI) -- On this date in history:
In 1868, the ratified 14th Amendment was adopted into the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing citizenship and all its privileges to African-Americans.
In 1945, the United States approved the charter establishing the United Nations.
In 1945, a military B-25 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building in New York City, killing 14 people and setting the building ablaze.
In 1976, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck the Tangshan, China, area, killing more than 240,000 people. It was among the deadliest quakes in recorded history.
In 1990, the collision of a freighter and two barges spilled 500,000 gallons of oil in the Houston Ship Channel near Galveston, Texas.
In 2003, J.P. Morgan Chase and Citigroup, the two largest U.S. banks, agreed to pay nearly $300 million in fines and penalties to settle charges they had aided Enron in deceiving investors.
In 2008, Iraqi authorities said suicide bombers, including three females, killed 61 people and injured 249 others in ethnic violence in Kirkuk and Baghdad.
In 2010, a plane flying in intense fog and rain to Islamabad crashed in the Himalayan foothills near its destination, killing all 152 people aboard.
In 2011, a federal judge in Washington threw out a lawsuit seeking to end the Obama administration's funding of embryonic stem cell research into possible cures for deadly diseases.
In 2013, a tour bus carrying people who had visited a Catholic shrine plunged nearly 100 feet down a slope in southern Italy. The death toll was at least 39, with many others injured.
In 2014, a California Judge gave Shelly Sterling approval to sell the LA Clippers for $2 billion over the objections of her estranged husband, Donald, longtime owner of the NBA team who was banned from the league. Former Microsoft chief Steve Ballmer bought team for that amount.