The team added Vigneault on a multiyear contract. The team didn't disclose financial terms of the agreement.
Vigneault, 57, recently coached the New York Rangers for five seasons (2013-18) before he was fired last April. He becomes the 21st head coach in Flyers history.
"We are extremely excited to have Alain join this franchise and lead our team behind the bench for many years to come," Flyers general manager Chuck Fletcher said in a statement. "He brings a tremendous amount of success over an extended period of time that will prove valuable to our team to take the next steps in returning the winning culture to the Philadelphia Flyers organization."
Vigneault also served as head coach for the Vancouver Canucks for seven seasons (2006-13) and the Montreal Canadiens for four campaigns (1997-2001). He won the Jack Adams Award as the NHL's top coach in 2007.
Vigneault has led his teams to the Presidents' Trophy three times (2011-12, 2015) and the Stanley Cup Final twice. He guided the Canucks (2011) and the Rangers (2014) to the championship series.
"It is an honor to be selected as the next head coach of the Flyers," Vigneault said. "The history they have established and the passionate fan base has made this a first-class franchise. I am excited to work with Chuck, the talented group of players and prospects coming through the system, in order to return Philadelphia to the top of the NHL landscape."
Vigneault has a career record of 648-435-98 (.588 winning percentage) in 1,216 NHL games. His 648 victories are tied for 12th in league history.
The Flyers missed the postseason this year. The organization fired former general manager Ron Hextall and head coach Dave Hakstol during the middle of the season. Vigneault replaces interim coach Scott Gordon, who filled in for Hakstol.