Trubisky completed 29 of 38 passes for 338 yards, three scores and an interception in the 24-20 win at Ford Field. Lions backup quarterback David Blough completed 22 of 38 passes for 280 yards, two scores and interception in the loss.
Lions wide receiver Kenny Golladay erupted for 158 yards and a score on four catches. Anthony Miller led the Bears with 140 yards on nine receptions.
"I'm super happy with the way our guys fought," Bears coach Matt Nagy told reporters. "It was a little bit of a slow start there ... A lot of players made a lot of plays, but today was Mitch's day."
Trubisky connected with Allen Robinson for a 10-yard touchdown on the first drive of the game. The score capped off a six-play, 50-yard drive.
The Lions answered on the following possession, with Blough finding Golladay for a 75-yard touchdown. The Lions scored again on their next drive, with Blough hitting Marvin Jones Jr. with an eight-yard touchdown pass.
Detroit increased their lead to 17-7 with a 25-yard Matt Prater field goal in the second quarter. Eddy Pineiro hit a 30-yard field goal on the Bears' next drive, making the score 17-10 at halftime.
The Bears tied the game in the third quarter, capping off a nine-play, 90-yard drive with a Trubisky touchdown pass to Jesper Horsted.
Detroit snatched the lead back with a 24-yard Prater field goal on the next drive. The Bears and Lions exchanged punts on the next two drives before Trubisky orchestrated a nine-play, 100-yard scoring drive, giving the Bears a 24-20 lead. The Bears quarterback connected with rookie running back David Montgomery on a three-yard touchdown pass to give Chicago the lead with 2:22 remaining.
Bears safety Eddie Jackson intercepted Blough with 29 seconds remaining to seal the win for Chicago.
Bears linebacker Roquan Smith had 10 tackles and two sacks in the win. Montgomery picked up 87 yards from scrimmage and a score for Chicago. Robinson had 86 yards and a score on eight catches. Bo Scarbrough picked up 83 yards on 21 carries for the Lions.
"It's rough," Lions cornerback Darius Slay said. "It's very disappointing, but the game is over now. I'm going to go enjoy my family ... Eat good and enjoy the late night game with my family."
The Bears host the Dallas Cowboys at 8:20 p.m. EST Thursday at Solider Field in Chicago. The Lions battle the Minnesota Vikings in another NFC North matchup at 1 p.m. Sunday, Dec. 8 at U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis.
"I'm just proud of the guys," Trubisky said. "It has been a lot of fun, even the ups and downs of this season. You just have to move on and keep getting better from here."