Sproles ran for 120 yards and a touchdown in six games with the Eagles last year. He also recorded 15 catches for 160 yards and two touchdowns.
"My heart is in Philly," Sproles said in a news release. "That's where I want to end my career. That team, the city is like a family."
Financial terms of the contract were not disclosed.
Sproles has played for the Eagles since 2014. He entered the league as a fourth-round draft pick of the then-San Diego Chargers in 2005.
Sproles has 3,486 career rushing yards, 4,816 receiving yards, 8,352 kick return yards and 2,875 punt-return yards with the Chargers, Eagles and New Orleans Saints. The former Kansas State star is less than 200 yards from passing Hall of Famer Tim Brown for fifth place on the NFL's all-time all-purpose yards leaderboard.
Sproles missed most of the 2017 season with a torn ACL and played only eight total games last year. He was active for both of the Eagles' playoff games.
The veteran joins a crowded Eagles running back room. Philadelphia traded for Jordan Howard this off-season and drafted Penn State's Miles Sanders in the second round.