It was the third such suspension for Bryant, who is on the Injured Reserve List.
"Effective immediately, Martavis Bryant has been returned to the Reserve/Commissioner Suspended list indefinitely for violating the terms of his April 2017 conditional reinstatement under the Policy and Program for Substances of Abuse," the league said in a statement.
The 26-year-old Bryant was suspended for four games in 2015 and was suspended for the 2016 season for previous violations of the policy. Bryant is not under contract for the 2019 season, so no team will hold his rights if he is reinstated from his latest ban.
There were reports in September that Bryant was facing another suspension for violating the league's substance abuse policy, but nothing official came from the league until Friday.
Bryant was placed on IR by the Raiders on Dec. 5 because of a knee injury.