Jackson will serve as a special assistant to the head coach.
Cincinnati made the move official on Tuesday. Jackson, 53, was fired by the Browns on Oct. 29 after posting a 3-36-1 record in his 40-game tenure. He owns an 11-44-1 overall record as an NFL head coach.
"I have a great comfort level with Hue and his ability to assist me with the day-to-day responsibilities on defense, including analyzing our opponents and helping me on game days with the players and defensive coaches," Bengals coach Marvin Lewis said in a news release.
Jackson became the Browns' coach in 2016. He posted an 8-8 record in one season as the Oakland Raiders' coach in 2011. Jackson worked at the college football level for more than a decade before joining the Washington Redskins' staff in 2001 as a running backs coach. He became the Redskins' offensive coordinator in 2003 before joining the Bengals in 2004 as a wide receivers coach. Jackson was the offensive coordinator for the Atlanta Falcons in 2007 before becoming the Baltimore Ravens' quarterbacks coach in 2008. He joined the Raiders in 2010 as an offensive coordinator before being promoted to Oakland's head coach.
Jackson rejoined the Bengals' staff in 2012 and remained there until being hired by the Browns.
"I'm pleased to have the opportunity to join the Bengals this season," Jackson said. "There is a lot of talent on this team, and I look forward to doing my part to help it finish the season strong."