NFL Network's Mike Garafolo reported that Ross aggravated the injury during Sunday's 45-10 setback to the Kansas City Chiefs.
Ross, who was the ninth overall pick of the 2017 NFL Draft, missed two games with the groin injury before returning for Sunday's game.
The 22-year-old Ross was unable to make it through the contest, however.
Ross has recorded seven receptions for 79 yards and two touchdowns this season.
Tyler Boyd has served as the No. 2 wide receiver behind seven-time Pro Bowl selection A.J. Green for the Bengals (4-3), who face the Tampa Bay Buccaneers (3-3) on Sunday before heading into their bye week.
Injuries have been an issue for the speedy Ross, who has played in just eight of 23 games since being drafted by Cincinnati.
All told, Ross failed to make a reception on two targets while playing on 17 offensive snaps in three games last season. Ross did have one rush for 12 yards, a play that resulted in a fumble against the Houston Texans on Sept. 14, 2017.
Ross underwent surgery on his right shoulder last offseason before attempting to conceal the severity of a left shoulder injury because he wanted to play. The Bengals wound up placing him on injured reserve.