The suspension, which will force Rogers to sit out Week 1, likely will not impact the Steelers for the season opener. Rogers is expected to open the season on the physically unable to perform list.
"We are disappointed that Eli Rogers has been suspended for Week 1 of the regular season as part of the NFL Policy and Program for Substances of Abuse," Steelers general manager Kevin Colbert said in a statement. "The suspension will begin following the final roster cut down on Sept. 1."
Rogers, who agreed to a one-year contract with Pittsburgh last month, is eligible to return from the suspension on Sept. 10.
Rogers is working his way back from a torn ACL sustained in the Steelers' 45-42 loss to the Jacksonville Jaguars in the playoffs last season.
The 25-year-old Rogers had only 18 receptions for 149 yards and a touchdown in 2017 while serving as the No. 4 receiver in Pittsburgh.
With Martavis Bryant traded to the Oakland Raiders during the offseason, the Steelers are hopeful Rogers will slot in at the No. 3 wideout spot behind six-time Pro Bowl selection Antonio Brown and JuJu Smith-Schuster.
An undrafted free agent out of Louisville in 2015, Rogers has 66 catches for 743 yards with four touchdowns since entering the NFL. His best season came in 2016, when he had 48 receptions for 589 yards with three scores.