Coleman was traded a day after Browns coach Hue Jackson said Coleman had a hamstring injury that limited him in practice.
Coleman, 24, was the 15th overall pick in the 2016 NFL Draft but has battled inconsistencies and dealt with injuries since entering the league. The Bills are hopeful a change of scenery can help Coleman bolster a team that did not have a wide receiver with more than 27 catches last season.
In 19 career games for Cleveland, Coleman totaled 56 catches for 718 yards and five touchdowns.
In each of his first two seasons, Coleman missed time with a broken hand suffered in games against the Baltimore Ravens.
Coleman was the first receiver picked in 2016 after winning the 2015 Fred Biletnikoff Award at Baylor. In his final college season, Coleman totaled 74 catches and 1,363 receiving yards.