The nine-day search ended with the former Cleveland Browns head coach getting the job over Packers assistants Darren Perry, Joe Whitt Jr. and Winston Moss.
The Packers dumped Capers on Jan. 1 after they finished 22nd in the NFL in total defense.
According to the Journal Sentinel, Packers coach Mike McCarthy was interested in Chicago Bears defensive coordinator Vic Fangio for the opening, but Fangio apparently is staying put after Matt Nagy was hired away from the Kansas City Chiefs as Chicago's head coach.
McCarthy also apparently wanted to speak with Los Angeles Chargers defensive coordinator Gus Bradley.
Pettine was the Browns' head coach for two years before he was fired after compiling a 10-22 record. He previously worked under Rex Ryan with stops that included the Baltimore Ravens in several defensive roles, and New York Jets and Buffalo Bills as defensive coordinator.
Other jobs that may need to be filled on the Packers' staff are defensive line coach and inside linebackers coach. That doesn't include any vacancies that might occur after the three in-house candidates didn't land the job.
During the 2017 season, Pettine worked as a consultant for the Seattle Seahawks.