The 49ers also released quarterback Brian Hoyer in addition to cornerback Will Redmond from the injured reserve list. The team officially acquired quarterback Jimmy Garoppolo from the New England Patriots on Tuesday morning.
The addition of Robinson comes with New York dealing with injuries to its secondary, namely fellow cornerbacks Morris Claiborne (foot) and Buster Skrine (concussion).
Robinson recorded 61 tackles, two interceptions, one forced fumble and one fumble recovery in 22 career games since being selected by San Francisco in the fourth round of the 2016 draft. The 22-year-old has 27 tackles, one interception, one forced fumble and one fumble recovery while playing all eight games for the winless 49ers (0-8).
Robinson started the first seven contests this season being replaced by rookie Ahkello Witherspoon in Sunday's 33-10 loss to the Philadelphia Eagles.
In 55 career games, Hoyer has a 59.3 percent completion rate with 9,853 passing yards, 48 touchdowns and 30 interceptions. This season, the 32-year-old was 0-6 as a starter for the 49ers with four TD passes and four interceptions.
Redmond was placed on injured reserve on Sept. 3 due to an ankle injury. He was originally drafted by the 49ers in the third round of the 2016 draft.