Timmons disappeared on Saturday night without informing the team and didn't play in Sunday's season opener against the Los Angeles Chargers.
The club reportedly filed a missing person's report with Los Angeles police, who found Timmons at Los Angeles International Airport early Sunday morning shortly before he was slated to board a flight to Pennsylvania to visit family.
The absence halted Timmons' streak of starting 101 consecutive games. It was to be his first game as a member of the Dolphins after spending his first 10 NFL seasons with the Pittsburgh Steelers.
Undrafted rookie Chase Allen started in place of Timmons as the Dolphins registered a 19-17 victory.
Timmons' suspension can be for a maximum of four weeks under the collective bargaining agreement.
Miami coach Adam Gase was less than thrilled to have to deal with the situation when he was quizzed by reporters on Monday.
Gase was asked if he had a lot of rules.
"Be on time and play hard," Gase said. "I don't know if that's real hard."
Gase was then asked what type of tolerance level he has when those two rules aren't followed.
"What do you think? You've got two rules. It's not hard," Gase said.
Timmons won't be paid during his suspension. He signed a two-year, $12 million deal in the offseason as a free agent.
Perhaps in response to Timmons' suspension, the Dolphins announced later Tuesday they acquired linebacker Stephone Anthony from the New Orleans Saints in exchange for a 2018 undisclosed draft pick.
Anthony's playing time had decreased each season in New Orleans.
Anthony was a first-round pick by the Saints in the 2015 NFL draft and started all 16 games as a rookie, totaling 112 tackles and getting to the Pro Football Writers Association All-Rookie Team in 2015.
Last season, however, Anthony played in 10 games with three starts, and this season he has not played at all.