Carroll was pulled over at approximately 2:15 a.m. for an unspecified traffic violation, and he was arrested at that time. He posted bond Monday afternoon after he was booked into Dallas County Jail at about 7:50 a.m.
Sidebar, an Uptown Dallas club near where Carroll was arrested, was having what was promoted as a "Welcome to Dallas Celebration" for him Sunday night. Police did not say where Carroll had been before he was stopped.
A Cowboys official said the team was aware of the situation and was gathering information.
Carroll, 30, could be subject to the NFL's personal-conduct policy, which could result in a fine or a suspension.
The Cowboys signed Carroll to a three-year, $10 million free agent deal in March. He was working with the Cowboys' first-team defense during organized team activities.
Carroll is entering his eighth NFL season. He started all 16 games for the for the Philadelphia Eagles last season, recording one interceptions and 41 tackles.
The loss of free agent cornerbacks Brandon Carr (to the Baltimore Ravens) and Morris Claiborne (to the New York Jets) made the cornerback spot a major need for the Cowboys, who selected three cornerbacks in the draft.