Under the league's anti-drug program, he is eligible to apply for reinstatement in two years. The Pacers said they were informed of Evans' two-year suspension Friday.
"We take these matters seriously and will reach out to Tyreke to offer our support," the team said in a statement."
The 29-year-old guard averaged 10.2 points, 2.9 rebounds and 2.4 assists in 20.3 minutes per game with the Pacers this season. He was scheduled to become a free agent this off-season.
According to the NBA's guidelines for the program, a player "can be dismissed and disqualified from the league for testing positive for a drug of abuse, or if he is convicted of or pleads guilty to the use, possession or distribution of a drug of abuse."
The player can be reinstated only after the approval of the NBA and the players' association.
The Sacramento Kings drafted Evans in the first round (No. 4 overall) in the 2009 NBA Draft. He has played 10 seasons in the league, which included stints with the New Orleans Pelicans and Memphis Grizzlies.