An MRI is scheduled for Saturday afternoon to confirm the diagnosis.
Edelman suffered a noncontact injury on the team's first drive. He left the game with three catches and 52 yards.
The nine-year veteran out of Kent State had a step on linebacker Jarrad Davis and caught the ball at Detroit's 29-yard line. Edelman turned upfield and planted his right foot into the turf before immediately reaching to the back of his right knee.
Edelman was able to limp off the field before being taken by cart to the locker room. He did not return to the contest.
Edelman has been Tom Brady's most frequent target over the last four years. Edelman has reeled in 356 receptions for 3,826 yards and 20 touchdowns in that span. They have played eight seasons together.
"We'll see what the extent is," Brady told reporters after the 30-28 win. "We're all hoping for the best. It's tough any time a teammate goes down. We've all been playing long enough where, when someone does, other people have to step in and fill the void.
"Hopefully that's not the case, but, you know, we'll figure it out (Saturday)."
"You never want to see a guy leave the game due to injury," Amendola said Friday night. "It's a rough game. Stuff like that happens sometimes. He's there for us, we're there for him. Whatever it is, however it shakes out, he's a really tough kid. Mentally, physically, one of the toughest you'll find."
The 31-year-old Edelman, who signed a two-year contract extension in the offseason, had team highs in catches (98) and receiving yards (1,106) last season.
Edelman's most important catch -- in the eyes of Patriots fans -- was his shoestring reception that kept the team's comeback bid alive in Super Bowl LI against the Atlanta Falcons.