The Tigers didn't disclose financial terms of the agreement. League sources told MLB Media that Maybin's one-year deal is worth $1.5 million plus incentives.
The one-year contract marks a return to the Tigers organization for Maybin, who played with the club in 2007 and 2016. Detroit selected Maybin in the first round of the 2005 MLB Draft.
"Cameron is a dynamic outfielder that we can rely on for solid play in both the field and at the plate," Tigers general manager Al Avila said in a statement. "His veteran presence will be an asset to our lineup and we're excited to have him back with the organization."
Maybin, 32, had a .285 batting average with 32 RBIs and a career-high 11 home runs in 269 plate appearances last season for the Yankees, who acquired him in a trade with the Cleveland Indians on April 25.
Maybin split the 2018 campaign between the Miami Marlins and Seattle Mariners. He posted a .249 batting average with four home runs, 28 RBIs and 10 stolen bases in 129 regular-season games with the clubs.
Maybin, who played on the Houston Astros' World Series-winning team in 2017, has a .256 career average with 71 homers, 347 RBIs and 183 stolen bases.
The Tigers placed right-handed pitcher Michael Fulmer on the 60-day injured list to make room for Maybin on the 40-man roster.