Cano, 36, initially sustained the injury on May 22. He missed 12 games before returning in a June 5 victory over the San Francisco Giants.
Cano was removed in the fourth inning of that game after hurting himself trying to beat out a double-play ball.
The Mets said Cano is suffering from "tightness" in his quadriceps. New York promoted pitcher Tim Peterson from Triple-A Syracuse in a corresponding move.
The injury continues a frustrating first year with the Mets for Cano, who won a World Series with the rival Yankees in 2009. Cano is only hitting .238 with three home runs and 14 RBIs in 46 games this season.
Cano also drew scrutiny for not running out ground balls last month. The Mets acquired the eight-time All-Star from Seattle in December.
New York entered play Sunday with a 31-33 record. The Mets trail the first-place Philadelphia Phillies by six games in the NL East Division.