Mauer made the announcement by writing a letter to Twins fans on Friday. The six-time All-Star and former American League MVP won three battling titles, five Silver Slugger awards and three Gold Gloves.
The No. 1 overall pick in the 2001 MLB June Amateur Draft hit .282 with six home runs and 48 RBIs in 127 games this season for the Twins. Mauer retires as a career .306 hitter with 143 home runs in his 15 seasons in Minnesota.
"After much consideration, I have decided to retire from playing baseball," Mauer wrote. "This decision did not come easily as baseball always has been, and always will be, one of my greatest passions. The last few months of the season were very emotional for me and I wanted to take time to separate some of those emotions and think with a clear frame of mind."
Mauer said the decision came down to his health and his family. He also cited risk of concussions and the end of his contract this offseason.
"Thank you Minnesota Twins, and thank you fans, for making my career as special and memorable as it was," Mauer wrote. "Because of you I can leave the game I love with a full and grateful heart."