Suzuki, 44, is now a free agent after receiving a $500,000 buyout. The Marlins passed on the $2 million club option.
Suzuki has 3,080 major league hits but started only 22 games last season. He batted .255 with three homers and 20 RBIs.
The Marlins issued a tweet to Suzuki: "It's been an honor watching you play. Thanks, #Ichiro!"
Suzuki previously expressed a desire to play until age 50 but it remains to be seen whether another team will offer a contract to the 10-time All-Star.
Suzuki, who owns a .312 career average, enjoyed his best seasons with the Seattle Mariners. He batted over .300 10 times in 11-plus seasons in Seattle and set the major league record with 262 hits in 2004.
The Marlins also claimed catcher Chad Wallach off waivers from the Cincinnati Reds. He is the son of Miami bench coach Tim Wallach.